4 levels of science explained

Biorestore Cotton uses ExfoZymes an enzymatic agent that performs a selective hydrolysis reaction of cellulose ( the main component of cotton), effectively removing the microfibrils (pilling) by targeting the β-1,4-d-glucan linkages in cellulose.

BIORESTORE ExfoZymes help to remove unwanted fuzz and pilling (microfibrils) from the yarn surface, resulting in a smoother fabric with enhanced color vibrancy, improved textile hand-feel and clothing shape retention


00x Magnification

Old and used clothing when observed with the naked eye appears to be faded, hairy and pilled with a rough, uneven, unattrative surface. Previously bright colors in old clothing present as a dull unappealing shade of their original color tone & past vibrancy.


00x Magnification

Clothing restored with BIORESTORE viewed under normal visual conditions appears bright & lustrous with a renewed, smooth / pilling free fabric surface which unveils the textiles vibrant original color, that was previously hidden under a layer of pilling.


40x Magnification

When magnified 40x under the microscope, pilling (microfibrils) damage is clearly visible on the yarn surface of the knitted textiles. The pilling creates a rough, unattractive surface which obscures and dulls the original color of the clothing.


40x Magnification

BIORESTORE ExfoZyme exfoliation gently removespilling (microfibrils) on each individual yarn over the surface of the clothing revealing the original vibrant color that was previously hidden by pilling, which dulled the clothings vibrancy.

How the science works - 3 simple steps

Biorestore Cotton utilises ExfoZymes an enzyme that performs a reaction (selective hydrolysis) with cotton (cellulose), removing pilling (microfibrils). By targeting β-1,4-d-glucan links, BIORESTORE ExfoZymes remove unwanted pilling from the fabric surface, resulting in smoother pilling free fabric with enhanced color vibrancy.


Magnified clothing fibrewith pilling (microfibrils ”noppor”) on textile surface

During Wash

BIORESTORE ExfoZymes target microfibrils on the clothing surface gently exfoliating & removing pilling


The result is a smooth pilling free surface with refreshed colors, revived shape & surface for your clothing

Individual pilling a mass effect

Zooming into an individual yarn level illustrates the process of the development of singular pills (microfibrils) on each yarn of the textile. Over time each fibre creates small hairs accumulating on the yarn surface, creating a mass effect of pilling visible on clothing.

Individual pilling (microfibrils) develop on the surface of clothing due to friction and stress during wear causing the textile fibres to break, leading to twisting & entanglement of multiple fibres and the growth of visible pilling over the clothing surface.

During the laundry process BIORESTORE ExfoZymes target the pilling (microfibril) at the individual fibres weakest point where a restorative exfoliation (selective hydrolysis reaction) occurs, weakening the pilling of the fibre.

Once the weakest part of the pilling has been targeted and the exfoliation is complete, the centrifugal action of the laundry machine removes the pilling from the clothing resulting in a smooth and pill free textile surface.

Restored Shape Explainer

As clothing is worn, pilling develops on each individual yarn and fibre increasing the overall volume distorting the shape of clothing & textiles.

New clothing

The surface & structure of new clothing textiles is tight and uniform, with the yarns smooth and compact as textile manufacturing produces yarns of uniform shape and structure, giving clothing a neat ‘’as new’’ appearance.

Old & pilled clothing

When clothes are used the surface of each yarn of the clothing becomes hairy, causing a cumulative effect at each yarn as the pilled fibres expand in volume, extending the individual width of each yarn, causing the textile and clothing to expand.

Renewed & restored clothing

Removing pilling with Biorestore ExfoZymes returns each individual yarn to it’s original size, shape & volume, having an overall effect on the textiles to restore the original shape of clothing, giving a renewed effect particularly on jersey ribbed cuffs & hems.

Color ‘’Brightness’’ Refraction Explainer

The refraction of light from the surface of clothing determines the perceived color vibrancy of the fabric to the eye.

New clothing

On new clothing the surface of the yarns & fibres is smooth, giving an optimum surface for light to refract at maximum effect to the eye for a vibrant & bright color.

Old & pilled clothing

When the clothing surface is covered in pilling through wear & tear, the surfaces ability to refract light effectively is reduced, resulting in less vibrant colors & a faded appearance.

Renewed & restored clothing

Biorestore's ExfoZymes remove the rough yarn & fibre surface made by pilling, resulting in a smooth surface, ensuring the refraction of light is optimized, giving a vibrant & bright color .

Science Glossary

The below glossary explains the key terms and process of pilling & pilling removal.

  • Pilling, Bobbles, Lint
    Pilling negatively impacts the color brilliance, texture, handfeel & shape of clothing by distorting the fibre alignment across the garments surface changing the reflection & refraction of light & color.

    The formation of pilling Microfibrils as small, fuzzy balls on the surface of clothing occurs when fibres in the material break and twist together.

    Starting due to friction and stress that the surface of clothing experiences during normal wear and laundering, the fibres on the surface of the fabric begin to break.

    Over time the broken and loose fibres entangle and twist together due to the continuous motion & friction of wearing and washing, with the entanglement process forming small knots or balls of fibre, which grow in size and volume with continual breaking, entanglement and formation of pilling.

    Once attached & entangled to the clothing, the pills remain on the surface of the fabric, held in place by other fibres that are still intact within the fabric in a continuous process of degradation of pilling, fading and lose of aesthetic.

    Microfibrils are fine, thread-like structure that is a component of fibres found in plants such as cotton.

    In plants, microfibrils are part of the cell wall and consist of molecules of cellulose, which are bundled together to form larger fibres, which give plants their structure and rigidity.

    In the context of textiles, made from natural fibres like cotton, microfibrils can contribute to the problem of pilling.

    In the context of textiles, made from natural fibres like cotton, microfibrils can contribute to the problem of pilling.

    Color Brilliance
    Pilling accumulates in areas of high wear, such as cuffs and collars, or areas continually in friction whilst wearing obscuring the underlying fabric's original color, making the clothings textile appear faded & less vibrant.

  • The accumulation of pilling changes the texture of the textiles surface affecting interaction of light & reflection with the textile, reducing its visual appeal & color brilliance, giving a dull or greyed tone & appearance to colors.

    Color Obscurance refers to how the authentic color of textiles & the clothing surface is masked or changed, due to the formation of pilling on the clothing surface and how color is perceived.

    When the formation of pilling occurs the original color is obscured. Once the pilling is removed the original color brilliance, brightness and tone is restored.

    Enzymes are natural proteins that play a crucial role in various biological processes across nature including digestion of food, photosynthesis in plant leaves, the production of food, ripening fruit and the production of many natural materials.

    BIORESTORE ExfoZyme enzymes are utilized as part of an exfoliation process to enhance the quality and appearance of textiles & clothing as part of BIORESTORE’s home laundry Re-Tergent.

    The ExfoZyme enzymes used in BIORESTORE target & exfoliate specific components in the fabrics yarns & fibres, in this case damaged cellulose fibres that cause Pilling, Bobbles, Lint which are removed from the clothings surface, giving a softer, smoother, renewed & restored appearance to clothing.

    ExfoZyme enzymes
    ExfoZymes are part of the BIORESTORE patent pending enzyme formulation which is designed to Exfoliate & remove pilling from fabrics & clothing made of cellulose - specifically cotton.

    ExfoZyme enzymes perform a selective hydrolysis reaction on cellulose fibres, which specifically target the microfibrils that cause pilling. By breaking down the bonds of β-1,4-D-glucan links, as part of a specific laundry process ExfoZyme enzymes removes pilling and smoothes out the fabric surface.

  • Exfoliate
    Acting as a wardrobe exfoliation, the Patent Pending & Award Winning active enzyme ingredient formulation of BIORESTORE carefully and scientifically works in combination with your laundry machine, 40°C water temperature, damaged Cellulose (Cotton) fibres to exfoliate & remove layers of damaged fibres, yarn, pilling & lint from the surface & deep fibre structure of your clothing, giving an as new appearance, feel & surface to your clothing.

    Cellulose is found across many types of plant material, from apples to wood, leaves and cellulose fibres such as those found in Cotton bols which are harvested and processed into Cotton textiles and clothing.

    β-1,4-D-glucan links
    β-1,4-D-glucan links are a type bond that hold together glucose molecules in cellulose. In cellulose, glucose units are linked by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. This bonding results in a linear, fibrous structure that gives cellulose its strength and rigidity, as found in cotton fibres. With the addition of specialized enzymes such as BIORESTORE ExfoZyme these bonds can be broken and separated from the intact cotton fibres, helping to reduce pilling and hairiness on cotton fabrics and clothing.

    Selective hydrolysis
    Selective hydrolysis is a process where specific bonds within a molecule are targeted and broken down in the presence of water. Selective hydrolysis is ’’selective’’ because only certain links within the molecule are targeted & cut.

    BIORESTORE ExfoZyme enzymes are designed to recognise and act on specific bonds, leaving the rest of the molecule (fibre) intact, with only the damaged & unwanted parts of the fibre, such as pilling targeted & removed from the surface without damaging the intact textile fibres or clothing.